纵波-转换横波联合反演技术在页岩气藏勘探中的应用
详细信息 本馆镜像全文    |  推荐本文 | | 获取馆网全文
摘要
近几年的页岩油气开发实践表明,页岩非均质性及水平井段的方位对页岩气单井产量、采收率及页岩气开采的经济性影响较大,而页岩非均质性主要受到天然微裂缝的影响。因此,开展页岩内天然微裂缝研究,寻找页岩储层"甜点"等是成功部署高产气井、提高页岩气开采经济效益的必然选择。基于美国阿巴拉契亚盆地Marcellus页岩区的3C/3D高分辨率地震资料,利用快/慢速转换横波(PSV-1/PSV-2)反射时间厚度差法,对Marcellus地层的天然微裂缝发育带进行了探测。应用纵-转换横波(PP-PS)联合反演技术,结合联合反演密度、纵横波速度比(vP/vS)等组合属性参数,对天然微裂缝的开闭性及张性天然微裂缝孔隙空间的含气性分别进行了识别和检测,并利用实钻井资料对地球物理方法预测的页岩储层"甜点"(含气张性微裂缝)进行验证,取得较好效果。实际应用表明,纵-横波联合反演技术对于张性天然微裂缝的识别及含气性检测具有突出优势,能有效降低钻探风险。
In recent years,the development of shale oil and gas shows that shale heterogeneity and lateral orientation have relatively great impacts on single well shale gas production,recovery factor and the economy of shale gas exploitation,and natural micro-fracture is the main factor resulting in shale heterogeneity. Accordingly,to carry out research on the natural micro-fractures and prediction of sweet spots within shale has become an inevitable choice for successful emplacement of high-yielding wells and improving economic benefits of shale gas exploitation. Based on the high resolution 3C /3D seismic data in Marcellus shale play within Appalachian Basin,North America,natural micro-fracture zone of Marcellus shale was predicted by means of fast and slow converted shear wave( PSV-1 / PSV-2) integrated interpretation,then the open / closed fractures and gas-bearing property of extensional micro-fractures were separately identified and detected by utilizing combined attribute parameters like joint inversion density,velocity ratio of compressional and converted wave( vP/ vS) extracted from joint inversion of compressional wave and converted shear wave( PP-PS). In addition,drilling data were used to verify the sweet spots predicted by geophysical method in Marcellus shale. Joint inversion technique( PP-PS) has outstanding advantages in natural extensional micro-fractures identification and gas-bearing detection,which can effectively reduce the drilling risk.
引文
[1]Lee D S,Herman J D,Elsworth D,et al.A critical evaluation of unconventional gas recovery from the Marcellus shale,Northeastern United States[J].KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering,2011,15(4):679-687.
    [2]陈志海,马旭杰,黄广涛.缝洞型碳酸盐岩油藏缝洞单元划分方法研究-以塔河油田奥陶系油藏主力开发区为例[J].石油与天然气地质,2006,27(6):847-855.Chen Zhihai,Ma Xujie,Huang Guangtao.Research on fracture-vug unit division of fractured-vuggy carbonate rock oil pools[J].Oil&Gas Geology,2007,28(6):847-855.
    [3]Stewart R R,Gaiser J E,Brown R J,et al.Converted wave-seismic exploration[J].Geophysics,2002,67(5):1348-1363.
    [4]Bowker K A,Grace T.The downside of using GR to determine TOC content:an example from the Marcellus Shale in SE West Virginia[C]//American Association of Petroleum Geologists(AAPG).Critical assessment of shale resource plays of AAPG Hedberg Research Conference.Austin:Sine nomine,2010:5-6.
    [5]Enomoto C B,Coleman J L.Geology of the Devonian Marcellus ShaleValley and Ridge Province,Virginia and West Virginia[C]//AAPG.A Field Trip Guidebook for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Eastern Section Meeting.New York:American Society of Mechanical Engineers,2011:37-46.
    [6]郝芳,董伟良.沉积盆地超压系统演化、流体流动与成藏机理[J].地球科学进展,2001,16(1):79-85.Hao Fang,Dong Weiliang.Evolution of fluid flow and petroleum accumulation in overpressured systems in sedimentary basins[J].Advance in Earth Sciences,2001,16(1):79-85.
    [7]Smith L B,Leone J.Integrated characterization of Utica and Marcellus black shale gas plays[C]//AAPG.AAPG Annual meeting.New Orleans:AAPG Format,2010:1-7.
    [8]Lash G G,Engelder T.Thickness trends and sequence stratigraphy of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Formation Appalachian Basin[C]//AAPG.AAPG Annual Metting.Houston:Gulf Publishing Company,2011:61-103.
    [9]Slatt R M,Rodriguez N D.Comparative sequence stratigraphy and organic geochemistry of gas shales:commonality or coincidence?[J].Journal of Natural Gas Engineering and Science,2012,8(9):68-84
    [10]Brad G.The facts about natural gas exploration of the Marcellus Shale[M].New York:Independent Oil and Gas Association of New York,2008:2-3.
    [11]Harper J A.The geology of pennsylvania[M].Pennsylvinia:Pennsylvania Geologic Survey and Pittsburgh Geological Society,1999:108-127.
    [12]陈双全,王尚旭,李向阳,等.PSV与PP波时间匹配应用研究[J].石油地球物理勘探,2010,45(4):497-501.Chen Shuangquan,Wang Shangxu,Li Xiangyang,et al.Time matching between P-SV wave and P-P Wave[J].Oil Geophysical Prospecting,2010,45(4):497-501.
    [13]黄跃,徐天吉,程冰洁,等.地震转换波叠后联合反演技术在川西须家河组气藏的应用[J].地质勘探,2010,30(4):1-4.Huang Yue,Xu Tianji,Chen Bingjie,et al.Application of convertedwave poststack joint inversion in the Xujiahe Formation gas reservoir in the western Sichuan Basin[J].Natural Gas Industry,2010,30(4):1-4.
    [14]Deangelo M V,Backus M,Hardage B A,et al.Depth registration of P-wave and C-wave seismic data for near-seafloor sedimentcharacterization,Gulf of Mexico[J].The Leading Edge,2003,22(2):96-105.
    [15]Fomel S,Backus M M,De Angelo M V,et al.Multicomponent seismic data registration for subsurface characterization in the shallow Gulf of Mexico[C]//Offshore Technology Conference(OTC)Program Committee.Offshore Technology Conference.Houston:Sine nomine,2003:1-2.
    [16]Wrightstone G.The Marcellus Experience[C]//Society of Petroleum Engineers(SPE).Applied Technology Workshop.Houston:Sine nomine,2012:33-34
    [17]杨振恒,韩志艳,李志明,等.北美典型克拉通盆地页岩气成藏特征、模式及启示[J].石油与天然气地质,2013,34(4):463-470.Yang Zhenheng,Han Zhiyan,Li Zhiming,et al.Characteristics and patterns of shale gas accumulation in typical North American cratonic basins and their enlightenments[J].Oil&Gas Geology,2013,34(4):463-470.
    [18]张丰麒,陆占国,刘昱彤.联合PP、PS波叠前AVA反演方法[J].物探与化探,2012,36(6):985-990.Zhang Fengqi,Lu Zhanguo,Liu Yutong.A Study of combining AVA inversion with PP-Wave data and PS-Wave data[J].Geophysical&Geochemical Exploration,2012,36(6):985-990.
    [19]Hardage B A.Evaluation of fracture systems and stress fields within the Marcellus Shale and Utica Shale and characterization of associated water-disposal reservoirs,Appalachian Basin[M].Pittsburgh:RPSEA Unconventional Gas Conference,2012:55-67.
    [20]孙炜,李玉凤,何巍巍,等.P波各向异性裂缝预测技术在ZY区碳酸盐岩储层中的应用[J].石油与天然气地质,2013,34(1):137-144.Sun Wei,Li Yufeng,He Weiwei,et al.Using P-wave azimuthal anisotropy to predict fractures in carbonate reservoirs of the ZY block[J].Oil&Gas Geology,2013,34(1):137-144.
    [21]Hardage B A,De Angelo M V,Murray P E,et al.Multi-component seismic technology[M].Oklahoma:Society of Exploration Geophysicists,2011:253-266.
    [22]孟元林,胡越,李新宁,等.致密火山岩物性影响因素分析与储层质量预测——以马朗-条湖凹陷条湖组为例[J].石油与天然气地质,2014,35(2):244-252.Meng Yuanlin,Hu Yue,Li Xinning,et al.Controlling factors on physical property of tight volcanic rocks and reservoir quality prediction:a case study of the Tiaohu Formation in Marlang-Tiaohu Sag[J].Oil&Gas Geology,2014,35(2):244-252.
    [23]田景春,刘伟伟,王峰,等.鄂尔多斯盆地高桥地区上古生界致密砂岩储层非均质性特征[J].石油与天然气地质,2014,35(2):183-189.Tian Jingchun,Liu Weiwei,Wang Feng,et al.Heterogeneity of the Paleozoic tight sandstone reservoirs in Gaoqiao Area of Ordos Basin[J].Oil&Gas Geology,2014,35(2):183-189.
    [24]Castagna J P,Batzle M L,Eastwood R L.Relationships between compressional-wave and shear-wave velocities in clastic rocks[J].Geophysics,1985,50(4):571-581.
    [25]Gardner G H F,Gardner L W,Gergory A R.Formation velocity and density-the diagnostic basics for stratigraphic traps[J].Geophysics,1974,39(6):770-780.
    [26]Carter K M,Harper J A,Schmid K W,et al.Unconventional natural gas resources in Pennsylvania-the backstory of the modern Marcellus Shale play[J].Environmental Geosciences,2011,18(4):217-257.
    [27]王文争,刘俊杰,乌锐.PP-PS联合反演含气性预测方法及应用[J].物探与化探,2011.35(4):516-520.Wang Wenzheng,Liu Junjie,Wu Rui.PP-PS Joint inversion technology and its application to gas reservoir prediction[J].Geophysical&Geochemical Exploration,2011,35(4):516-520.
    [28]谷明峰,徐美茹,周进高,等.叠前同时反演技术在碳酸盐岩储层预测中的应用[J].岩性油气藏,2013,25(2):60-64.Gu Mingfeng,Xu Meiru,Zhou Jingao,et al.Application of prestack simulation inversion to the predicition of carbonate reservoirs[J].Lithologic Reservoirs,2013,25(2):60-64.
    [29]李奎周,赵海波,韩林,等.孔隙流体对砂岩弹性参数的影响[J].大庆石油地质与开发,2011,30(5):171-174.Li Kuizhou,Zhao Haibo,Han Lin,et al.Influences of the pore fluids on the elastic paramenters of sandstone[J].Petroleum Geology and Oilfield Development in Daqing,2011,30(5):171-174.
    [30]李铭,李艳华,楚泽涵.声频谱测井方法研究进展[J],地球物理学进展,2003,18(2):229-233.Li Ming,Li Yanhua,Chu Zehan.Research evolution of acoustic spectrum logging methods[J].Progress in Geophysics,2003,18(2):229-233.
    [31]Wang X Q,Schubne A,Fortin J,et al.High Vp/Vs ratio:Saturated cracks or anisotropy effects?[J].Geophysical Research Letters,2012,39(11):22-27.
    [32]Stockton S L.The use of 3-component seismic data to identify sweet spots in fractured bakken reservoirs[C]//APPG.APPG.Annual Metting.Houston:Gulf Publishing Company,2011,213-227.
    [33]潘仁芳,赵明清,伍媛.页岩气测井技术的应用[J].中国科技信息,2010,(7):16-18.Pan Renfang,Zhao Mingqing,Wu Yuan.Application of log technology in shale gas[J].China Science and Technology Information,2010,22(7):16-18.
    [34]杨少春,王惠娟,任怀强,等.下扬子地区不同应力场下的成岩作用特征研究[J].石油天然气学报,2011,33(6):54-61.Yang Shaochun,Wang Huijuan,Ren Huaiqiang,et al.Research on diagenetic characteristics of various stress field in Lower Yangtze Area[J].Journalof Oil and Gas Technology,2011,33(6):54-61.
    [35]罗蓉,李青.页岩气测井评价及地震预测、监测技术探讨[J],天然气工业,2011,31(4):34-39.Luo Rong,Li Qing.Log evaluation,seismic prediction and monitoring techniques of shale gas reservoirs[J].Natural Gas Industry,2011,31(4):34-39.
    [36]涂乙,邹海燕,孟海平,等.页岩气评价标准与储层分类[J].石油与天然气地质,2014,35(1):153-157.Tu Yi,Zou Haiyan,Meng Haiping,et al.Evaluation criteria and classification of shale gas reservoirs[J].Oil&Gas Geology,2014,35(1):153-157.

版权所有:© 2021 中国地质图书馆 中国地质调查局地学文献中心