典型重工业城市热岛效应特征分析——以唐山市为例
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摘要
本文选取唐山这座典型重工业城市,以地震后的气象资料(1977年-2006年)和2006年7月1日-2007年6月30日对比观测资料,采用统计分析方法对热岛效应特征进行研究与对比分析,结果发现:①1977年-2006年间热岛强度平均为0.51℃,最近10年热岛强度平均为0.82℃;②热岛效应的日变化明显,"夜热岛"强于"日热岛",变化幅度为-0.1~1.5℃。一年中夏秋季节热岛强度比冬春季节热岛强度明显,其中夏季最为明显。春、夏、秋、冬四季分别为-0.16~1.16℃、0.12~2.44℃、-0.09~1.49℃、-0.27~0.95℃;③唐山市上半年(1月-6月)的热岛强度高于下半年(6月-12月),气温跃变后唐山站与周围各站之间的热岛强度均大于全系列热岛强度;④人口总量、人口密度、建成区面积是城市热岛强度的主要影响因素,产业结构(重工业比例)也可能是影响热岛效应的主要因素之一。
Heat Island Intensity Effect (HIIE) of Tangshan City,a typical heavy industrial city,was analyzed by compared climate data from the literature during the period from 1977 to 2006 and that of July 1 2006 to June 31 2007 in this paper.Climatic variations were characterized by annual average temperature,mean month temperature and mean daily temperature.The correlation between the urbanization process and the climatic change was examined.Result showed that: 1) the temperature in urban districts was higher than that in suburban districts.The heat island intensity was increasing year by year,estimated to be 0.51℃ from 1977 to 2006 on average and 0.82℃ in recent ten years;2) the daily variation in heat island intensity was obvious,which was -0.1℃ to 1.5℃.The daytime heat island intensity was stronger than that of nighttime.The heat island intensity in summer was stronger than other seasons.The diurnal fluctuation was maximal in summer.The intensity of spring,summer,autumn and winter was found to be -0.16-1.16℃,0.12-2.44℃,-0.09-1.49℃,and -0.27-0.95℃,respectively;3) the heat island intensity in the first half year was stronger than that of the second half year in Tangshan City.Between the urban areas and various suburbs,the heat island intensity behaves differently.The heat island intensity differs in various suburbs and various months.The heat island intensity of Tangshan station and others surrounding it was strong;and 4) the number and density of population,as well as current urban area,were major factors contributing to the heat island intensity.In addition,the heat island intensity may also be affected by industrial structures.The heavy industry refer to highly energy-consuming and discharge enterprises,which can cause temperature to rise in some areas.Under the influence of weather factors without wind,high-temperature frequently corresponds to gas emissions.The suspended solids from enterprises in the atmosphere cannot spread in time,which causes temperature differences between urban areas and suburban areas.It was therefore considered a key reason that led to differences in representation of heat island effect between typical heavy urban areas and other areas.Through reasonable planning of urban construction,energy conservation,clean energy,forestation,family planning,and the control of population density,climatic change could be mitigated to certain degree.Sustainable development of a city could thus be realized.The study provides a meaningful basis for further studies on the effect of urbanization on urban climate.
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