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公路智能选线与决策支持系统研究及开发
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摘要
公路选线是一个多目标决策问题,需要考虑环境保护、经济、安全、交通质量和功能等诸多因素和目标,这些目标有时是矛盾和冲突的,如何协调、平衡处理这些目标之间的关系,寻求总体目标最优的路线方案是长期以来一直困扰公路工作者的重要问题。受设计手段和计算模型的限制,传统的公路设计方法和路线设计系统难以协调多目标间的关系,存在拘泥于专家经验、主观性强、过分注重某个目标而忽视其它目标等缺陷。基于此,本文结合计算机技术和数学技术的发展成果,以解决上述问题为目标,对公路多目标智能选线及其决策支持系统进行深入研究。
     论文深入分析了公路选线方法、方案评价和设计系统的研究现状,提出了公路智能选线与决策的研究思路。阐述了公路多目标智能选线定义,界定了公路选线与决策的主要内容和研究目标,建立了公路选线的过程模型。结合公路选线各阶段特点,根据目前公路路线设计系统的开发和应用现状,确定了以构建以路线方案多目标智能优化为核心、多属性智能决策为重点、属性分析与计算为辅助的系统总体框架,并详细分析了系统的数据需求和功能需求。
     针对公路选线中涉及到的海量地理数据、属性信息以及线形资料,考虑设计决策的多目标性等特点,提出了基于GIS和多目标遗传算法的公路路线方案优化方法。建立了公路路线平、纵方案优化的数学模型和多目标优化模型;研究了路线编码和初始方案产生方法,分别建立了经济、安全、环保三个目标函数,解决了路线方案生成和评价中对安全和环保目标的量化问题。结合路线平、纵面优化的特点,分别对其进行了遗传算法的设计,对传统的遗传算法流程进行了优化,构建了适于公路选线特点的路线方案多目标遗传算法流程,编制了以终止条件下非劣解集的方案作为设计初始方案的优化程序,解决了公路选线自动化的关键技术,为实现公路选线的智能化奠定了基础。
     在深入分析路线与地质、水文、地形等环境信息的关系的基础上,提出了空间环境特征与路线信息的数据挖掘方法,建立了适宜于计算机处理的路线优化模型的数据表达模式。建立了“标准”、“规范”规则、基础理论规则、专家经验规则和评价分析规则及其控制机制和设计模型库。
     深入分析了路线方案多属性决策特点,提出了基于GIS的全寿命费用分析与计算方法;深入研究了环境和安全对路线方案的影响,提出了基于GIS的环境影响评价和公路线形安全性评价方法,建立了路线方案的经济、环保、安全属性值的统计与计算模型。提出了无偏好信息情况下基于信息熵的多属性决策方法、有部分偏好信息情况下基于方案综合度和达成度的多属性决策方法以及偏好信息完全已知情况下基于线性目标规划模型的多属性决策方法,并阐述了各种决策方法的适用条件和详细操作步骤,为实现路线方案的智能决策提供了技术支持。
     结合课题研究理论和方法,对Arc GIS进行了二次开发,借助Visual Basic.net框架研发了具有路线方案自动优化、经济性分析、安全评价、环境影响评价和路线方案多属性决策功能的公路智能选线与决策支持系统,提高了对设计的支持层次和深度,为现有系统的改进与完善提供了技术参考。
Highway alignment selection is a multi-objective decision making that should consider the environmental protection, economic, security, traffic quality and function of many factors and objectives, which are sometimes contradictory and conflict. How to reconcile the relationship among these goals and seek the best alignment are important issues that puzzle highway workers for a long time. Limited by the design tools and computational models, the traditional highway design method is difficult to coordinate multi-objective relationship. It exist such defects as stick expert experience, subjectivity, over-emphasis on one objective while ignoring others and so on. In order to solve these issues, combining the development trend of computer technology and mathematics technology, Highway Alignment Intelligent Selection base on Multi-objective and Decision Support System is studied.
     Based on the deep analysis of the method of highway alignment selection, alignment evaluation and design system, the idea of highway alignment intelligent selection base on multi-objective and decision-making is put forward. By analyzing the connotation of highway alignment selection, the process model of alignment selection is established, the definition of highway alignment intelligent selection base on multi-objective is defined, and the highway selection and decision-making are described. Combining features of various stages for alignment selection, the framework of system is constructed based on current development of highway design system and application status. This paper plans the framework of system which is that alignment intelligent optimization based on multi-objective as core, multi-attribute intelligent decision making as the keystone, attribute analysis and calculation are researched as assistant. The data requirements and functional requirements of the system are detail analyzed.
     Aiming at the massive geographic data, attribute information, as well as alignment data and multi-objective decision-making and other characteristics of highway alignment selection, the Optimization method based on GIS and multi-objective Genetic Algorithm is proposed. The optimization models for horizontal and vertical alignment and multi-objective optimization are established. The method of programming coding genes and initial alignment are researched. And the functions of economic, safety and environmental are established to solve the problem of quantizing the safety and environmental objectives in the stage of highway alignment generation and evaluation. Considering the characteristics of horizontal and vertical alignment, the genetic-algorithm formulations are designed. The traditional genetic algorithm optimization processes is optimized to construct a multi-objective genetic algorithm program flow to suit highway alignment features. Finally, the non-inferior solution set is recommended as the initial alignment for designer to solve the key highway alignment automation technology, which can improve the pace of highway alignment intelligent selection.
     Based on the analysis of relationship between highway and geology, hydrology, topography and other environmental information, the data mining method is proposed for space environment and alignment information. The expression patterns are established for computer processing, which is suitable to alignment optimization model. The rules of design standards, basic theory, expertise and evaluation are constructed, and the control mechanisms and model library are also established.
     By deeply analysis of the features to multi-attribute decision making for highway alignment schemes, the analysis method and calculation method of GIS-based life cycle cost are proposed. By deeply research on the impact of environmental and safety on the alignment scheme, GIS-based environmental evaluation and highway alignment's safety evaluation are proposed. And then, the models are established to statistic and commutate attributes’value of economic, environmental and safety.
     Combining the different preference information, this paper offers multi-attribute decision making based on information entropy for no preference information problems, multi-attribute decision making based on alternative achievement scale and alternative comprehensive scale for some preference problems, multi-attribute decision making based on linear goal programming model for the problems which preference information is completely known. The conditions of application for various decision-making methods and detailed steps are illustrated to provide technical support for achieving highway alignment intelligent decision-making.
     With the theory and method reviewed in the paper, Arc GIS is Secondary developed. And with the framework of Visual Basic.net, the highway alignment intelligent selection and decision support system is developed which has the functions of highway alignment optimization, economic analysis, safety evaluation, evaluation of environmental effects and multi attribute decision making for alignment schemes. The system improves the level and depth of design, and provides a technical reference to the existing system for its improvement and perfection.
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