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甲玛斑岩—矽卡岩型铜矿床蚀变矿物组合研究
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摘要
高光谱短波红外技术用于地质勘查与找矿方面的研究在国外已有20余年的历史,该项技术核心就是通过蚀变矿物中O-H基在短波红外区间引发的振动强弱与区间变化确定不同的蚀变矿物类型。在国外,高光谱短波红外技术在地质找矿方面的应用开展较为广泛,有了许多成功的可供借鉴的实例,但在我国该项研究仍处于仪器和技术的研发阶段,采用高光谱短波红外技术仅局限于蚀变矿物的识别与蚀变填图,而通过蚀变矿物组合特征进行成矿预测尚未有大的进展。本文采用高光谱短波红外技术,选择西藏甲玛斑岩-矽卡岩型铜多金属矿床,通过测量48个钻孔岩心、17191个1:1万岩石测量样品,共获得了29250条光谱曲线数据,开展蚀变矿物组合特征研究,建立了高光谱勘查模型,进而开展区域和深部的找矿预测。为此,作者以《甲玛斑岩-矽卡岩型铜矿床蚀变矿物组合研究——基于高光谱短波红外技术》作为博士论文,通过研究,取得了如下研究进展:
     1、通过高光谱短波红外技术,识别了多种蚀变矿物,系统研究和总结了蚀变矿物组合特征,并据此划分了蚀变分带:(1)钻孔岩心中出现的蚀变矿物有17种,包括钠云母、白云母、多硅白云母、铁绿泥石、镁铁绿泥石、镁绿泥石、绿帘石、石膏、黑云母、蒙脱石、电气石、高岭石、黄玉、黄钾铁矾、伊利石、白云母和方解石。从南西向北东,浅部向深部,从青磐岩化→钾化叠加泥化变化,显示有多期次的岩浆侵位。矿物组合特征表现为:{(钠云母为主,少量白云母)+(大量铁绿泥石,少量镁铁绿泥石)+方解石}→{白云母+镁铁绿泥石+黑云母+少量石膏+(结晶程度不高的高岭石)+方解石}→{(白云母,多硅白云母)+(镁铁绿泥石+镁绿泥石)+大量黑云母+高岭石+地开石+黄玉+石膏+方解石}→{(白云母,多硅白云母)+极少量的镁绿泥石+绿帘石+大量黑云母+(结晶程度高的高岭石)+蒙脱石+石膏+黄钾铁矾+电气石+伊利石白云母+方解石}→{(白云母+多硅白云母)+(结晶程度高的高岭石)+蒙脱石+石膏+伊利石白云母}。(2)1:1万岩石测量样品测定的蚀变矿物10种,包括钠云母、白云母、多硅白云母、铁绿泥石、镁铁绿泥石、镁绿泥石、高岭石、绿帘石、叶腊石、方解石。发现象背山以南2km处,出现(钠云母+铁绿泥石)→(白云母+镁铁绿泥石+绿帘石+叶腊石+方解石)→(多硅白云母+镁绿泥石+绿帘石+叶腊石+方解石)组合,显示一种斑岩成矿系统由外带蚀变矿物向内带蚀变矿物的环状蚀变矿物组合分布特征。
     2、根据蚀变矿物组合的变化推断并钻探证实了甲玛矿床的深部存在含矿斑岩体,并确定其大致位置,含矿岩体位于ZK2420-ZK2871以北。指示深部斑岩体位置的蚀变矿物组合为多硅白云母+结晶程度高的高岭石+蒙脱石+黑云母+石膏+黄钾铁矾+伊利石白云母。随着温度的升高,白云母中的Al减少,绿泥石作为外围蚀变矿物其含Mg量增加,近斑岩体未见绿泥石类矿物,结晶好的高岭石化叠加,出现钾化带特征蚀变组合石膏+黑云母。
     3、通过矿化强度与蚀变矿物组合之间的关系,认为矿体的厚度与泥化蚀变矿物高岭石、蒙脱石的叠加和蚀变强度呈现一定的相关关系,表明成矿过程有多期次岩浆的侵位,导致泥化叠加在黄铁绢英岩化之上。该认识对外围找矿具有重要的指导作用,高岭石+蒙脱石的高级泥化蚀变矿物是寻找隐伏矿体的重要指示蚀变。
     4、结合1:1万岩石地化测量、1:1万高精度磁测成果,建立基于多元找矿信息的勘查模型,通过地质验证,证实了勘查模型的有效性和实用性。
     主要创新点:
     1、建立了基于高光谱短波红外技术的蚀变矿物组合和蚀变分带勘查模型,应用该模型确定了矿化分带与蚀变分带之间的关系,并由此可推断斑岩-矽卡岩型铜多金属矿的剥蚀深度。
     2、圈定了多个找矿远景区,提出了深部存在隐伏含矿斑岩体的新认识。
     3、甲玛铜钼矿石中绢云母波长的变化反映了绢云母中铝含量的相应变化,从绢云母波长的交替变化可以反演岩浆侵入期次,从靠近热源的14个钻孔中发现,矿体至少经历了5期岩浆的侵入。
Recently, high frequency wave infrared technology has been applied to mineprocessing and metallurgy, which has more than twenty years history on geologicalsurvey and prospecting. The core of this technology is making sure the differentmineral types, through altered minerals O-H radical vibrating with strong and weakor interval change triggered in high frequency wave infrared interval. Therefore,Hyperspectral high frequency wave infrared technology has accumulated some canbe used for successful reference on geology application in abroad, but it still stay onunderway stage in china. Hyperspectral high frequency wave infrared technology justhas been applied on altered minerals identifying and mapping, while analyzing alteredmineral assemblage to conduct the metallogenic prediction is not yet have a greatprocess. Hyperspectral high frequency wave infrared technology which used in TibetJia Ma porphyry-skarn copper deposit has been chosen as the research object in thispaper is that we obtained twenty-nine thousand two hundred and fifty curve ofspectrum by measuring forty-eight boring-cores and seventeen thousands one hundredand ninety-one rock samples. Carry out the research on altered mineral assemblage,building the high frequency wave prospecting model. The author use 《The alteredmineral assemblage research in Jiama porphyry-skarn copper deposit—based onHyperspectral high frequency wave infrared technology》as doctoral dissertation tittle, because of a mass of spectroscopic data analysis and altered mineral assemblagefeatures research, then obtain conclusions as follows:
     1.By high frequency wave infrared technology, distinguishing various alteredmineral, and make a system conclusion and research on altered mineral assemblagefeatures, then divided the altered mineral belt.(1) there are17kinds of altered mineralin drill core include: paragonite, muscovite, phengite, daphnite, Fe-Mg chlorite,amesite, epidote, gypsum, biotite, montmorillonite, tourmaline, kaolinite, topaz,jarosite, illite and calcite etc. from SW to NE, and superficial part to deep part that ispropylitization→potash feldspathization overlying with argillization, they all show themulti-magma emplacement. mineral assemblage are:{(paragonite is the most, a littlemuscovite)+(a large number of daphnite, a little Fe-Mg chlorite)+calcite}→{muscovite+Fe-Mg chlorite+biotite+a little gypsum+the kaolinite with lowcrystallization extent)+calcite}→{(muscovite, phengite)+(Fe-Mg chlorite+amesite)+a large number of biotite+kaolinite+dickite+topaz+gypsum+calcite}→{(muscovite, phengite)+a small number of amesite+epidote+a large number ofbiotite+(kaolinite with high crystallization extent)+montmorillonite+gypsum+jarosite+tourmaline+illite-muscovite+calcite}→{(muscovite+phengite)+(kaolinitewith high crystallization extent)+montmorillonite+gypsum+illite-muscovite}.(2)there are10samples in1:10000altered mineral, they are include paragonite,muscovite, daphnite, Fe-Mg chlorite, amesite, kaolinite, epidote, pyrophyllite, calciteetc.from north par to XiangBei mountain about two kilometers appeared(paragonite+daphnite)→(muscovite+Fe-Mg chlorite+epidote+pyrophyllite+calcite)→(phengite+amesite+epidote+pyrophyllite+calcite)is a circle distributioncharacteristics with ecto-entad.
     2. According to altered mineral assemblage change deduced that the deepporphyry location in Jia Ma porphyry-skarn copper deposit is near the north ofZK2420-ZK2871. It can indicated that the altered mineral assemblage in deepporphyry location is phengite+kaolinite with high extent+montmorillonite+biotite+gypsum+jarosite+illite-muscovite. With the temperature rising, Al is reducing inmuscovite, and chlorite as the ambient altered mineral that the Mg is increasing, butapproach to the deep porphyry location will not have Chlorite mineral, with thekaolinite crystallization extent increasing,the obvious products appearing in potassiczone these are gypsum+biotite.
     3.By analyzing the relationship between ore body and altered mineralassemblage, the thickness of ore body and quantity of argillization altered mineral kaolinite and montmorillonite have positive correlativity. Metallogenic process hasmulti-stages magmatic emplacements, lead to argillization overlying on theberesitization, it is very important to find mine in periphery,because ofkaolinite+montmorillonite advanced argillization altered mineral is the importantindication for finding concealed ore body.
     4.Combining with1:10000Rock geochemical survey,1:10000high-precisionmagnetic survey,building multielement ore prospecting model.By geology test andverify,confirming that prospecting model is effectiveness and practical applicability
     The main Innovations:
     1.By buliding high frequency wave infrared technology altered mineralassemblage and alteration zone exploration model to make sure mineralization zoningand alteration zoning relationship,from this can deduce the deep of Jia Ma porphyry-skarn copper deposit.
     2.Enclosing multi-prospective areas,put forward the new cognition is the hiddenporphyry rock mass in deep.
     3.The wavelength change indicates the content of Al in muscovite.The alternantchange of muscovite’s wavelength evident the magma intrusion periods.From the14drillholes close to heat source, it can be at least5periods magma intrusion.
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